Sebastian Graff1

M, #37, b. 7 January 1711, d. 6 October 1763
Last Edited: 27 Apr 2017

Family:

Eva Weber b. 6 Sep 1709, d. 5 Sep 1768

Children:

Johannes Graff16 b. 30 Jun 1737
Georg Michael Graff+16 b. 2 Dec 1738, d. 14 Mar 1768
Andreas Graff 16 b. 4 Sep 1740
Maria Magdelena Graff16 b. 22 Mar 1742
Sebastian Graff+17 b. 11 Mar 1744, d. 2 Jul 1791
Matthaus Graff17 b. 28 Oct 1745
Anna Margaretha Graff+17 b. 6 May 1747
Georg Frederich Graff17 b. 9 Jan 1751, d. 19 May 1791
Catharina Graff17 b. 15 Nov 1752, d. 28 Feb 1814

Notes

  • Name Variation: Johann Sebastian Graff6
  • Immigration*: 5 September 1730; First Immigration: Ship Alexander and Anne, William Clymer, Master, Qualified at Philadelphia 5 Sept 17307
  • Immigration: 16 September 1736; Second Immigration: Ship Princess Augusta, Samuel Marchant, Master, from Rotterdam, Qualified 16 Sept 1736.
    With Hanns Georg Graff. List 42A: "Bastian Graff, from Boston, age 25. George Graff, age 34"
    Note that the Sebastian Graff signatures made in 1730 and in 1736 are nearly identical, evidence that they were made by the same person.
    Note that the "from Boston" on List 42A is unexplained.8
  • Note*: Obituary, translated from the Moravian Lancaster Diaries:
    "1763, Saturday, the 8th of October
    This morning we were [saddened] because Brother Seb. Graf, who had passed away Thursday evening in Reading, was brought here dead in his coffin. Since his body was already expired, arrangements to bury him were made immediately. I reported this event to Lititz, from whence came Brothers Haller and Horn, Joh. Klein, and Jacob Meyer and attended the burial, which took place at 3 o’clock in the afternoon in our churchyard and drew a large crowd, with Br. Rusmeyer reading the liturgy and with a subsequent sermon in the church to a large auditorium seating several hundred people. There was not room for everyone, and some had to remain outside; others went home. My text was I Thessalonians 4:13. The listeners were very attentive. I read a brief account of his life:
         Our departed brother, Sebastian Graf, was born in Offenheim in the Anspach area on 7 January 1711 and was raised in the Lutheran faith. In 1730, he came into the country, went out again, and married his now-widowed wife, with whom he settled here in 1736. Their marriage produced 9 children, 6 sons and 3 daughters, of whom 3 sons and the 3 daughters are still living, Marie Margreth and Catharina in Bethlehem. Through the preaching of Brother Nyberg, he was spiritually awakened and stuck with him; but after he [Nyberg] went away, it was a long while before the departed formally joined the Brethren Church, where he was accepted on 30 March 1755 and admitted to Holy Communion on the 15th of June in the same year. He was respected and loved throughout this area, for he served every man with word and deed wherever he could.

    He was a very intelligent man and was often called upon as arbitrator or to assist in similar matters. In the last 2 years, he withdrew from all business affairs, left his farm and moved into the city (Lancaster) and thus could await the illness that God sent him (gout) and otherwise enjoy an undisturbed Sabbath. In August ’62, during a trip, he suffered the first attack of gout; in February ’63 he had a violent paroxysm, and later the same several more times, so that his mental faculties and speech were lost, and one could expect nothing other than that he would die. He was also very sick last summer in Bethlehem. Though he rallied somewhat from time to time, he always looked ahead to his completion and often said to the sisters who spoke with him: "Lord, deal with me as Thou wilt, in living and in dying" as in the old Lutheran hymn. He put his house in order and was no longer concerned with external things; he was affectionate and childlike, and we could be happy for him. Before winter he wanted to visit Bethlehem and his two daughters one more time; so this past Wednesday he, along with his wife, Sister Rusmeyer and widow Cath. Dehofin[?] (his son Sebastian was driver), set out. But they got only as far as Reading, where he still was present at the evening meal but afterwards lay down and fell into his usual sleep, but without gout, and on Thursday, the 6th of October, at 6 o’clock in the evening, departed this life peacefully. His age at death was 52 years and almost 9 months. His remains were, as I said, brought to Lancaster and buried today, the 8th of October, in our churchyard in the presence of a large following. Sunday, October 9th."2
  • Note: Biography: "An outline of the American career of Sebastian Graff can be reconstructed from the short biography in the diary, as well as a number of other sources. The Graffs had nine children, six of whom were still alive in 1763. In 1740 Sebastian, with his cousin George Graff, opened a shop in Lancaster, where he peddled a broad assortment of goods. From 1739 he acquired a number of properties in Lancaster and the environs. And in 1742 he was appointed one of the first municipal burgesses in the newly incorporated city. In January 1746 he advertised in Christopher Saur's Germantown German newspaper, the Pennsylvanian Reports, that he had given up his shop, but still sold sugar, wine, rum and other spirits. The success of his commercial and real estate transactions enabled him, around the middle of the century, to withdraw as a "gentleman farmer" on a large farm in Manheim Township north of the city of Lancaster, on which he also ran a flour mill. At his death he left his wife and his children four homes in Lancaster, the 140 acre farm in Manheim Township and assets of more than 5000 pounds in cash and obligations. He was one of the wealthiest men in Lancaster County before the American Revolution. In sources he is repeatedly found a slave holder.

    During 1745-1746 a violent dispute broke out in the Lutheran church of Lancaster about the preaching of the Swedish pastor Laurenz Thorstensson Nyberg, who sympathized with the Moravian Brethren teachings of with Nicolas Zinzendorf. Sebastian Graff was a leading partisan Nyberg, but only in 1755 entered the community of Moravians in Lancaster, which had split from the Lutheran church."9
  • Note: Birth Location: In both the Lancaster Diaries obituary and on his gravestone Sebastian Graff is said to have been born at "Offenheim in Anspachischen". His sister Catherine is also said to have been born there. These place names are no longer in use.

    German scholar Mark Häberlein formulated the location as "Offenheim in the margrvate of Ansbach, a Franconian principality", and as "Offenheim in the principality of Brandenburg-Ansbach".

    Genealogist Jane Best states that Sebastian's father, grandfather and greatgrandfather lived at Rot-am-See, and that Sebastian's father "appears to have moved to Neuherberg near Uffenheim, Germany". Rot am See is about 40 km SW of Neuherberg.

    This compiler suggests that the location is 97215 Aspachhof, about 5 km WNW of 97215 Uffenheim.10,11,3
  • Note: A Newlander: Sebastian Graff immigrated in 1730, returned to Germany, and came back to Philadelphia in 1736. This is evidenced by the signatures in the Lists of Arrivals, cited above, and two additional sources:

    By way of background: Caspar Wistar (1650-1750), a German had immigrated to Philadelphia in 1711. He became a very successful, wealthy, well-connected merchant and entrepreneur. Among various ventures, he imported German goods to Pennsylvania, both legally - taxed, and illegally - intermixed with immigrants belongings. He also acquired lands from the Penn heirs during a period when they could not sell due to title problems, and in turn sold the lands to German immigrants. He is of interest to contemporary scholars who study transatlantic connections and commerce of that era, such as Rosalind Beiler and Mark Häberlein. (Also see in this database Wistar's sister Anna Barbara (Wüster) Eppler.)

    Rosalind Beiler studied the correspondence of Caspar Wistar and his German agent Georg Friederich Hölzer. In "Smuggling Goods" she wrote: "Sometime around 1730, Wistar began to order merchandise from continental Europe...In early 1733, Bastian Graff (a newlander) carried another order for merchandise to Hölzer...By winter [1733] Wistar received news that war had broken out in the Rhine Valley. Between then and 1736, he heard nothing from Hölzer or his European family members...The following September [1736] the ship 'Princess Augusta' arrived carrying Graff, Tönes and Jacob Meyer. Both Graff and Tönes were the newlanders with whom Wistar had sent money and letters to Europe a few years earlier."

    Mark Häberlein found and cited Sebastian Graff's obituary, called "Memoir of Sebastian Graf, Lancaster Diary" in a journal written by members of his Moravian community in Lancaster. Translated, it states: "Our departed brother, Sebastian Graf, was born in Offenheim in the Anspach area on 7 January 1711 and was raised in the Lutheran faith. In 1730, he came into the country, went out again, and married his now-widowed wife, with whom he settled here in 1736."12
  • Note: Will of Sebastian Graff of the Borough of Lancaster, written 15 Feb 1763, codicil 6 Jun 1763,proved 31 Oct 1703.
    Bequests:
    Wife Eva, house on King St with half lot in Lancaster borough, & £2000.
    Son Michael, house & 40 acres in Lancaster & Manheim Townships, and house & 1/3 of a stable in Lancaster borough.
    Son Sebastian Graff, 140 acre plantation including old mill in Manheim Township.
    Three sons Michael, Andrew & Sebastian, the other two thirds of the stable in Lancaster borough
    Daughter Mary Magdelena, £1000.
    Daughter Margaret, £1000, when she is 21.
    Daughter Catharine, £1200, when she is 21.
    Condition: In the case that any of three daughters marry without the consent of Eva, then Eva can decide how much of the above bequests is to be given.
    Three daughters Mary Magdalena, Margaret & Catharine, lot on Orange Street in borough of Lancaster.
    Residual divided between the six children.
    Executors wife Eva, John Hopson and Emanuel Carpenter Esquire.
    Witnesses George Graff, Michael Franciscus & Will Atlee.
    Codicil Appoints friend George Kline to be guardian of Catharine and to put her estate out at interest.1
  • Note: Deeds - Homestead on Conestoga Creek:

    On 18 Jan 1738/39 Henry Neff and wife Franca granted to Sebastian Graff shopkeeper of Lancaster, in consideration of £250, 150 acres in Lancaster Tp. on west side of Conestogoe Ck. Recorded 18 Dec 1741, Lancaster Deeds, A-35. (image #22, FamilySearch.org on line deeds Book A)

    On 23 Mar 1749 Sebastian Graffe & wife Eve of Lancaster Twp. granted to Michael Byerle, in consideration of £5, 6 acres in Lancaster Twp., part of purchase from Neff 18 Jan 1738/9. Recorded 20 Aug 1750 Lancaster Deeds A-181. (img. 96)

    On 31 Dec 1745 Abraham Neiff and wife Mary granted to Sebastian Craffe of Lancaster Co., in consideration of £9 6/8, 2/3rds acres in Lancaster Twp. Recorded 27 Jan 1745/6 Lancaster Deeds B-301. (img. 289)

    On 28 Nov 1746 Jacob Neisley and wife Mary granted to Sebastian Graff, in consideration of £6 25 acres in Manheim Twp. adjoining Graff's land. Recorded 31 Jan 1746, Lancaster Deeds, B-395. (img.336)

    On 4 Oct 1750 Abraham Neiff and wife Mary granted to Sebastian Graffe of Maneheim Tp., in consideration of £100, 26 1/2 acres in Lancaster Tp. Recorded 6 Oct 1750, Lancaster Deeds A-200 (img. 106)

    On 12 Nov 1751 Abraham Neff and his wife Maria granted to Sebastian Graff the residual of the second 150 acres. Recording not found; described in H-290. (img. 406)

    On 11 Sept 1762 Sebastian Graff of Lancaster borough and Eva his wife granted to Andreas Graff, one of their sons, in consideration of love and affection and £500, a tract of 130 acres on Conestoga Creek. Witnessed by Christopher Crawford [father-in-law of Andreas]. Recorded 1 May 1765 Lancaster Deeds H-290. (img. 406) Descent to Sebastian Graff described: Part of 5553 acres patented 25 Jun 1718, Book A, Vol. 5, pg. 306, to Collet, Quare, Gouldney & heirs of Russel; of which on 13/14 Mar 1722 300 acres were granted to Hans Henry Neff recorded Phila. Bk. F, Vol. 1_ [obscured], pages 9 & 19; and Hans Henry Neff and wife Franca his wife granted 18 Jan 1738 recorded Lancaster Book A vol. 1 page 35 150 acres of the 300 to Sebastian Graff. And Hans Henry Neff by his 24 Jan 1744 will devised the remaining 150 acres of the 300 to his son Abraham Neff; and Abraham Neff and Maria his wife on 31 Sept 1745 granted two and 2/3rds acres part of the 2nd 150 acres to Sebastian Graff; and Abraham Neff and his wife Maria on 4 Oct 1750 granted 26 1/2 acres part of the second 150 to Sebastian Graff; and Abraham Neff and his wife Maria on 12 Nov 1751 granted to Sebastian Graff the residual of the second 150 acres; by which Sebastian Graff became seized of all of the 300 acres.

    Deeds - Lots in Lancaster borough:

    On 8-13-1740 James Hamilton granted to Sebastian Graff a lot on King St. in Lancaster. Recorded Lancaster Deeds I-169. (img. 553)

    On 23 Oct 1746 James Hamilton granted to Sebastian Graffe, in consideration of 7/ annually, a lot on the north side of Vine St in lancaster borough. Recorded 31 Aug 1762, Lancaster Deeds H-53. (img. 279 left)

    On 11 Aug 1758 Sebastian Graffe granted to the elders of the Lutheran Congregation in Lancaster borough a lot on the north side of Vine Street in the borough of Lancaster. The lot had been granted to Graffe by James Hamilton on 23 Oct 1746. Elders and church wardens to whom released: Adam Simon Kuhn, John Swope, Barnard Hubley, Phillip Shoffelberger. Recorded 23 Aug 1762, Lancaster Deeds, H-51. (img. 278)

    On 22 Oct 1763 Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, proprietors, granted letters of incorporation to the members of the Juliana Library Company of Lancaster, including Sebastian Graff. Lancaster Deeds, H-185. (img. 353)

    On 12 Jun 1764 George Ekert mortgaged to Peter Sriare?/Sware?, in consideration of £30, lot #1 in the borough of Lancaster, which lot Sebastian Graff had sold to Ekert on 1 Feb 1763. The lot fronted on Mill Street. Lancaster Deeds H-240. (img. 381)

    Deeds - Other lands:

    On 30 Jan 1744 Sebastian Graff and Eve his wife granted to Thomas Cookson, in consideration of £40, a 206 acre tract on Bermudian? Creek in Manchester Twp. land had been granted to Graff by patent 10 Jan 1744, Patent Book A, Vol. 12, p. 173. Recorded 22 Jun 1745, B-275. (img.

    On 30 Jan 1744 Sebastian Graff of the Borough of Lancaster and Eve his wife granted to Thomas Cookson, in consideration of £40, 204 acres in Manchester Twp. Land had been patented to Graff 10 Jan 1744, recorded Philadelphia Patent Book A, Vol. 12 p. 175. Recorded 22 Jun 1745, Lancaster Deeds B-277. (img. 277)

    On 3 may 1749 Sebastian Graff and Eve his wife granted to Conrad Weysar and Jacob Hoover, in consideration of £250, a 400 acre tract in Bethel Twp. One moiety or half part to Weiser and the other half part to Hoover. Land had been patented to Graff 23 May 1746. Recorded 8 Jul 1761, Lancaster Deeds, F-409. (img. 700) (Later sale F-296b. img. 645)

    On 20 Oct 1755 John Thomas granted to Sebastian Graffe, in consideration of £150, a 5 acre lot in Lancaster Twp. Recorded 8 May 1762, Lancaster Deeds H-8b. On 13 Apr 1758 Sebastian Graffe and Eve his wife granted this same lot to Cornelius Lane, in consideration of £240. Recorded 11 May 1762, Lancaster Deeds H-9. (img. 254 rt.)13,14
  • Note: Mortgages:

    On 1 Jun 1741 Martin Weybrecht blacksmith mortgaged to Emanuel Crpenter and Sebastian Groffe for £133-13 due 1 Dec 1741 275 acres Conestoga Manor. Satisfaction acknowledged 8 Dec 1763. Lancaster Deeds A-34. (image #22, FamilySearch.org on line deeds Book A)

    On 4 Feb 1745/46 Jacob Bear mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £250 due 3 Feb 1746/47 137 acres in Manheim Twp., including grist, oil & saw mills. Sat. ack. 8 Jan 1758. Lancaster Deeds B-307. (img. 292) This property was mortgaged again 23 Apr 1748.

    On 10 Aug 1747 David Bare mortgaged to David Trisler and Sebastian Graffe for £100 due 10 Aug 1748 232 acres in Leacock Twp. Sat. Ack. 13 Nov 1747. And on the same day, 13 Nov 1747 Jacob Bare mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £200 232 acres in Leacock Twp. Sat. ack. 8 Dec 1763. Lancaster Deeds, B-450 & B-461. (imgs. 364, 369)

    On 23 Apr 1748 Jacob Bare miller mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £150 due 23 Apr 1749 137 acres in Manheim Twp. Sat. ack. 8 Jan 1750. Lancaster Deeds B-588. (img. 434)

    On 25 Jan 1748/49 Jacob Bare mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £80 due 24 Jan 1749/50 45 acres in Manheim Twp. Sat. ack. 8 Jan 1750. Lancaster Deeds B-641. (img.

    On 18 Dec 1750 Abraham Neiff mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe of Manheim Tp. gentleman for £300 due 18 Dec 1751, with penal bond of £600, 124 acres in Lancaster Tp. on Conestoga Ck., wherein is contained 2 1/2 acres already belonging to said Sebastian Graffe. Satisfaction acknowledged by Graffe 9 Dec 1751. Recorded 27 Dec 1750 Lancaster Deeds, A-242. (img. 127)

    On 27 Jun 1751 Philip Ramigh mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe and Rudolf Hare for £102 due 27 Oct 1751 with penalty of £204 a lot at Prince & Water St in Lancaster. Sat. 1788. Lancaster Deeds C-217. (img. 578)

    On 21 Jun 1753 Ludwig Ferdinand Vock minister mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £30 due 21 Jun 1754 a lot in the borough of Lancaster. No note regarding satisfaction. Lancaster Deeds, D-48. (img. 28)

    On 25 Jun 1753 George Swartz saddler mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £90 due 25 Jun 1754 a lot in the borough of Lancaster. Sat. ack. 19 Nov 1762. Lancaster Deeds D-49. (img. 28)

    On 1 Jul 1753 Jacob Luttman mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £70, with £20 due 1 Jul 1754, and £10 due 1 Jul 1755, and £20 due 1 Jul 1756, a lot in the borough of Lancaster. Sat. ack. 24 Jan 1763. Lancaster Deeds D-50. (img. 29)

    On 2 May 1754 Andreas Beyerly baker and innholder and his wife Beatrix mortgaged to David Franks and Joseph Simon a lot in the borough of Lancaster for £200 due 1 June. The lot was subject to a previous mortgage of £150 due by Beyerly to Christian Hare and Christian Hersey. On 21 May 1754 Franks and Simon assigned their mortgage to Sebastian Graff and Michael Fortiney for £200. No note regarding satisfaction. Lancaster Deeds D-128. (img. 69)

    On 20 Oct 1757 Conrad Hysly mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £80 10 acres in Manheim Twp. Sat. 1760. Lancaster Deeds E-213. (img. 412)

    On 17 Nov 1759 Christian Hildebrand mortgaged to Sebastian Graffe for £454 due 17 Nov 1760 100 acres in Earl Twp. Sat. ack. 29 Mar 1763, signed later due to illness 7 May 1763. Lancaster Deeds D-546. (img. 289)

    On 21 Nov 1759 John Houston, miller mortgaged to Sebastian Graf of Manheim Twp for £300, with bond of £600, due 21 Nov 1761 20 acres including a grist mill in Salisbury Twp. Sat. ack. 1 Mar 1797. Recorded 18 Mar 1760, lancaster Deeds D-553. (img. 292)

    On 13 Nov 1758 Erhort Cless blacksmith mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £100 due 13 Nov 1759, with penal bond of £200, 150 acres on branch of Mill Ck. Sat. 1759. Lancaster Deeds E-246. (img. 431)

    On 23 Dec 1758 John Francis mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £60 due 23 Dec 1759 100 acres in Cocalicao Twp. Sat. 1762. Lancaster Deeds E-248. (img. 432)

    On 22 Jun 1759 Ulrick Scherick mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £200 due 22 Jun 1760 300 acres in Cocalico Twp. Sat. 20 Feb 1761. Lancaster Deeds E-323. (img. 469)

    On 26 Nov 1761 Adam Hambrecht mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £200 due 26 Nov 1762, with £400 penalty bond, 115 acres in Manheim Twp. Sat. ack. 9 Mar1769. Lancaster Deeds G-318. (img. 170)

    On 24 May 1762 Michael Rudisilly mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £250 due 24 May 1763, with £500 penalty bond, 140 acres in Manheim Twp. Court ordered sat. ack. 22 Aug 1827. Lancaster Deeds H-25. (img. 262 rt.)

    On 18 Jun 1762 Robert Patten mortgaged to Sebastian Graff for £190 due 1 Nov 1763, with a £380 bond, 99 acres in Manheim Twp. By court order satisfaction entered 7 Jul 1939 (sic). Lancaster Deeds H-30. (img. 265 lt.)13,14
  • Note: Note that the will of Sebastian's unmarried daughter Catharina is important evidence of Graff family relationships.

    Also, see Jane Evans Best's "The Groff Book, Volume 2, The Continuing Saga" for a well researched genealogy of the extended Graff family.15

Citations

  1. [S38] Lancaster County, Pa. Register of Wills. Will of Sebastian Graff, 1763. Will Book A, pages 236-7. Viewed on FHL Microfilm 21345.
  2. [S46] Memoir of Sebastian Graf, Lancaster Diary, October 8, 1763, (Box: Lancaster Diaries, 1761-1768, Shelf 261B, Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa. Copy obtained from Archive. Transcribed and translated 2 Dec 2016 by Ann C. Sherwin of Raleigh NC.
  3. [S15] Best, Jane Evans. The Groff Book, Volume 2, A Continuing Saga. Ronks PA, Groff History Associates, 1997. [see also vol. 1 by Groff, et. al.], p. 10, 66.
  4. [S36] Lancaster Cemetery, Lancaster City, Pennsylvania. FHL microfilm 20371, Item 13., p. 96.
  5. [S23] Felker, Kenneth A., ed., Burial Book of Moravian Church, Lancaster, Penn. Translated by George R Steinman. Printed book; With typed index & penned annotations by Kenneth A Felker 1938. FHL Microfilm #383,298, Item 2., p. 6, #152.
  6. [S58] Strassburger, Ralph Beaver. Pennsylvania German Pioneers : A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals In the Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808. Vol I reprinted Genealogical Publ. Co. 1966; Vol. 2 reprinted Picton Press, 1992., Lists 12B, 12C.
  7. [S58] Strassburger, Ralph Beaver. Pennsylvania German Pioneers : A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals In the Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808. Vol I reprinted Genealogical Publ. Co. 1966; Vol. 2 reprinted Picton Press, 1992., Vol I, Lists 12A, 12B, 12C, p. 35, 36, 37. Vol II, Lists 12B, 12C, p. 26,27.
  8. [S58] Strassburger, Ralph Beaver. Pennsylvania German Pioneers : A Publication of the Original Lists of Arrivals In the Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808. Vol I reprinted Genealogical Publ. Co. 1966; Vol. 2 reprinted Picton Press, 1992., Vol I, Lists 42A, 42B, 42C, p. 162, 164, 166. Vol II, Lists 42B, 42C, p. 155, 160.
  9. [S32] Häberlein, Mark. 'Transatlantische Beziehungen im 18. Jahrhundert : Die Kontakte südwestdeutscher und Schweizer Einwanderer in Pennsylvania zu ihren Heimatregionen' ['Transatlantic relations in the 18th century : The contacts of southwest German and Swiss immigrants in Pennsylvania to their home regions'], a chapter in 'Migration und atlantische Welt', in book Menschen zwischen zwei Welten : Auswanderung, Ansiedlung, Akkulturation, ed. Walter G. Rödel, Helmut Schmahl. Publ. Trier : WVT, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Tier, 2001. p. 45. [roughly translated via web] [Stanford Univ., Cecil B. Green Lib.] [see also Beiler]
  10. [S33] Häberlein, Mark. The Practice of Pluralism: Congregational Life and Religious Diversity in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1730-1820. Penn State Press, 2009. [Google books], p. 67-68.
  11. [S31] Häberlein, Mark. 'Migration and Business Ventures: German-speaking Migrants and Commercial Networks in the Eighteenth-Century British Atlantic World', a chapter in eBook 'Transnational networks : German migrants in the British Empire, 1670-1914', ed. John R Davis. et. al., Leiden : BRILL, 2012, p. 19-38. [Google books], p. 30-31.
  12. [S6] Beiler, Rosalind J., 'Smuggling Goods or Moving Households?' : The Legal Status of German-Speaking Immigrants in the First British Empire', chapter I, 'Migration und atlantische Welt', in book Menschen zwischen zwei Welten : Auswanderung, Ansiedlung, Akkulturation, ed. Walter G. Rödel, Helmut Schmahl. Publ. Trier : WVT, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Tier, 2001. p. 9. [Stanford Univ., Cecil B. Green Lib.] [see also Häberlein], p. 19, 20.
  13. [S16] Bucks Co., Pennsylvania, Recorder of Deeds; Deeds, 1729-1867 ; Index, 1729-1894. FHL Microfilm series.
  14. [S44] Mayhill, R. Thomas, compiler. Lancaster County Pennsylvania Deed Abrstracts & Revolutionary War Oaths of Allegiance; revised and enlarged edition; deed books 'A' through 'M'; 1729 through c1770 with adjoining landowners & witnesses. Knightstown, Ind., The Bookmark, published 1973, 2nd printing 1979.
  15. [S15] Best, Jane Evans. The Groff Book, Volume 2, A Continuing Saga. Ronks PA, Groff History Associates, 1997. [see also vol. 1 by Groff, et. al.]
  16. [S30] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lancaster County, 1723-1777. Washington D.C., Humphrey Publications, 1997., citing Holy Trinity Lutheran, Lancaster.
  17. [S30] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lancaster County, 1723-1777. Washington D.C., Humphrey Publications, 1997., citing Moravian Church, Lancaster.